Permaculture has been emerging in the last few years, and it has been argued that it used nature to develop an abundance of food and energy for people’s needs (Lovell, 2014). The definition given by Merriam-Webster dictionary to permaculture is “an agricultural system or method that seeks to integrate human activity with natural surroundings to create highly efficient self-sustaining ecosystems.” The cross-fertilization of humans and nature can contribute to permaculture by creating an ecosystem of independence and self-sufficiency that helps tackle various social issues. Many confirm that permaculture is a crucial driver of food and economic security (Thomas, 2017). According to Khumbane (2004, pp4), “food security is not just having vegetables like spinach, cabbage, onions, tomatoes, green beans, and pumpkins but taking into account basic food needs which culturally sustain food requirements that the household is accustomed to.”
Apart from ensuring food security through the development of food forests (Van Bemmel, 2017), a new potential for economic prosperity is possible for farmers provided by permaculture (Vella,2010). Permaculture has the potential to maximize the work that nature does and also reduces the need for human labor, extra materials, and other resources, which are positively associated with the economy of farms (Bhandari and Bista, 2019). Regarding food security, people can ensure their food production through the cycle of activities in a permaculture context that everyone respects and where the means of production are accessible (Khumbane, 2004). Therefore, the opportunity that permaculture offers is unique. Food deficit is reduced, and after the first years of physical labor and the cost to rejuvenate the land, the price is minimized as the system becomes self-regulated (Bhandari and Bista, 2019). At the same time, it ensures the deductions of the expenses to the farmer because there is no need for new seeds, fertilizers, and other resources (Conrad, 2010).